THE NECESSITY OF
Imam Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi
Translated by Dr. Maulana Abdul Naim Azizi
THE NECESSITY OF ZAKAT
Question: What is the verdict of the learned scholars of Islam if a person does
not pay Zakat on his wealth but spends the money in good deeds i.e. he
distributes money and grain among the poor in charity, builds a mosque and
gives a village as a gift with the money from Zakat so that he will
employ its profit in good deeds for the whole of his life. On this subject one
person says that no kind of charity is justified with money which has not been
paid in Zakat.
Daily charity, the construction of a mosque and the gift of the village are in
And so we request your verdict on whether the money whose Zakat has not
been paid, is allowed to be used in deeds of welfare in Islam or is not
allowed. Perhaps the gift of the village should be taken back and it should be
further endowed so that its profit may be used to pay the unpaid Zakat
of the past? May Allah Ta' ala reward you!
Answer:- Zakat is one of the greatest obligations (Fard) and important
fundamentals of Islam and so it has been mentioned along with the ritual prayer
two times in the Holy Quran and Allah Ta' ala has called His slaves to this
important obligation in various ways and declared clearly that whatever you
paid as Zakat doesn't decrease your wealth but your wealth is increased
due to this.
Allah Ta' ala says:
"Allah Ta' ala destroys the interest (Riba) and increases the
Harmful growths affect some trees so that they check their blooming. The
foolish will not prune them because they think that so much will be taken from
plant, but a wise person knows that pruning them will help a tree to bloom. The
same is the case with Zakat wealth.
Bazzaz and Baihaqi report from Ummul Momineen
(The mother of the believers) Hazrat Ayisha Siddiqa (Radi Aliahu Ta'ala Anha)
that the Holy Prophet
(Sail Aliahu Ta' ala Alaihi wa Sallam) says:
"Zakat money will not destroy wealth but it will be added to
Tabrani quotes in
`Ausat' with reference to Hazrat Abu Hurairah and he reports from Amirul
Momineen Umar-Farooque (Radi Ailahu Ta'ala Anhuma)
that the Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi Wa Saliam) says:
"Whatever wealth goes to waste in land and sea is destroyed due to non
payment of Zakat".
Ibn Khuzaima in his
`Sahih', Tabrani in `Ausat' and Hakim in `Mustadrick' report from Jabir bin
Abdullah (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Holy Prophet
(Sail Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi Wa Sallam) says:
"Undoubtedly Allah Ta'ala removed the evil of his wealth from him who paid
Bahaiqi reports from
a group of Companions (Radi Aliahu Ta' ala Anhum) that the Exalted Prophet
(Sail Aliahu Ta' ala Alaihi Wa Sallam) states:
"Protect your wealth as though in a strong fort by paying its due Zakat
and treat your sick with charity".
See how an unwise villager who has no wheat seed, gets it with many
difficulties through debt and then sows it in the earth. At that time he mixes
it into the dust with his hands but he hopes that Inshallah this loss will be
turned into much grain. Haven't you the same sense as that villager, with the
result that you rely on outward means, and do not believe in Allah Ta'ala's saying
and do not sow the seed of Zakat to increase your wealth and so turn
every grain of yours into a tree. He says that if you pay Zakat, your
wealth will be increased. If you do not completely believe this, this is
definite infidelity. Who is more foolish than you, who sacrifices such great
worldly and religious gain and invites the trouble of the loss of both Worlds?
Bazzaz reports from Alqama that the Holy
Prophet (Sail Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi wa Sallam) says:
"The completion of your Islam is that you pay Zakat on your wealth'
Hadith 6. Tabrani reports in `Kabeer' from Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar
(Radi-Allahu Ta' ala Anhuma) that the Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Ta'ala wa
"To pay Zakat on his wealth is a duty for him who believes in Allah
Ta'ala and His Messenger i.e. It is the demand of Iman that Zakat has to
`Muslim' quote from Hazrat Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Holy
Prophet (Sail Alaihi wa Sallam) says:
"He who has gold or silver and does not pay Zakat, will be punished
in such a manner that on the Day of Judgement this gold and silver, shaped
into plates, will be heated in the fire of Hell and his forehead, side and back
will be branded with them and when those plates go cold again they
will be heated again and he will be branded with them, and this will go on the
whole day until the account of every creature is cleared. Note that the
Day of Judgement is equal to fifty thousand years of this World."
Allah Ta'ala says:
"And those who hoard gold and silver and
spend not in the path of Allah Ta'ala, give them the good tidings of painful
torment. The day when their
wealth shall be heated in the fire of Hell, and their foreheads, sides and
backs shall be branded with it. This is what you have hoarded for yourselves.
Now taste the
And do not think this branding will be merely a touch of the fire or will only
be enough to make the forehead, back or side sweat, and no more. But listen to
description in the Hadith.
`Muslim' quote with reference to Ahnaf bin Qais that Hazrat Abu Zar (Radi
Allahu Ta' ala Anh) says:
"The hot stone of Hell will be kept on their nipples and will burst the
chest, and then will be held to their sides and their bones will burst the
He further reports that the Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Alaihi wa Sallam) says:
"The stone, after breaking the back will emerge from the side and break
the nape of
the neck and will emerge from the forehead". This Hadith has been reported
by `Sahih Muslim'.
Tabrani reports in
`Kabeer' from Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh):
any penny rest on another nor any gold coin touch another but rather the body
of the person who didn't pay Zakat will swell so much that if there were
millions of pennies, every penny would brand separately."
Do you consider the Commandments of Allah Ta'ala and His Messenger (Sail Allahu
Alaihi wa Sallam) merely a joke and fun or think that the suffering of heart
breaking pains for fifty thousand years will be easy. For a while just keep a
heated coin on your body and compare this little heat with that fire of anger,
and this one minute's pain, with thousands of years of catastrophe, and this
light touch with that anger which breaks bones. May Allah Ta'ala guide the
Ibn Maja, Nisai and
Ibn Khuzaima report from Ibn Masood (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Chosen
Prophet (Sail Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi wa Sallam)
"The wealth whose Zakat will not be paid will be shaped into a bold
dragon and fall on the neck of the person who hasn't paid Zakat.
leader of the Universe (Sail Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi wa Sallam) confirmed it with
the Holy Quran where Allah Ta'ala says: "What they were mean
with, will be their necklace on the Day of Resurrection". (Ale Imran. 180)
`Muslim' reports from
Hazrat Jabir (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Holy Prophet (Sail Ailahu Ta'
ala wa Sallam) says:
"A dragon with
an open mouth will run after him. He will escape. Allah Ta'ala will say to him,
`Take the treasure which you concealed and about
which I don't care.' When he sees that there is no refuge from the dragon,
helpless, he will put his hand in its mouth arid it will chew it as a camel
Bazzaz, Tabrani, Ibn
Khuzaima and Ibn Habban quote with reference to Sauban (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh)
that the Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Ta'ala
Alaihi wa Sallam) says:
"When the dragon will run after him, he will ask, `Who are you?' It will
say, `I am your unpaid Zakat which you left after your death.' When he
sees that it goes on following him, he will put his hand in its mouth. It will
chew his hand and then his whole body."
Bukhari and Nisai
report from Hazrat Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Holy Prophet
(Sail Allahu Ta' ala Alaihi wa Sallam) says:-
"The dragon taking his hand in its mouth will say, `I am your wealth, I am
Tabrani reports from
Hazrat Au (Karam Allahu Ta'ala Wajh) that the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu Ta'ala
Alaihi wa Sallam) says:
"The poor will suffer hunger and nakedness in the World only because of
the rich. Listen! Allah Ta'ala will judge the rich's account very harshly
and punish them in a heartbreaking way."
Ibn Khuzaima, Ahmad,
Abu Yala and Ibn Habban report from Abdullah bin Masood (Radi Allahu Ta'ala
Anh), "A person who fails to pay Zakat is cursed as
the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi wa Sallam) described."
Asbahani reports that
Maula Ali (Karam Allahu Ta'ala Wajh) says:
"The Messenger of Allah (Sall Allahu Ta'ala Alaihi wa Sallam) said that
usurers, persons encouraging usury, witnesses to usury and writers
of the documents of usury are cursed on the Day of Resurrection."
Tabrani and Abu Shaikh report from Anas (Radi
Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Messenger of Allah Ta' ala (Sail Allahu Ta'ala
Alaihi wa Sallam) says,
"There is an evil for the rich which is brought by the poor on the Day of
Resurrection. The poor will ask. `Our Lord! They usurped our rights which
you made obligatory for them towards us.' Allah Ta' ala will say, `I swear by
My Honour that I will grant you nearness to Me and keep them very far
Bazzaz reports from
Hazrat Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu Ta' ala Anh):
"The Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Alaihi wa Sallam) saw some people who were
wearing dirty rags on their front and back sides and were eating, like animals,
the hot fire of Hell, and stone, and cactus and hard, sour, burning and evil
smelling grass. He asked Hazrat Gabriel (Alaihi Sallam), who they were? He
replied that they were defaulters on Zakat and Allah Ta' ala had not
been unjust to them. Allah Ta'ala does not tyrannise over His slaves."
Ahmed, Abu Dawood and Nasai report from Abdullah bin Umar (Radi Allahu Ta' ala
"Two women wearing gold bracelets attended to the Holy Prophet (Sail
Allahu Ta' ala Alaihi wa Saliam). He asked them if they had paid their
Zakat? They replied humbly that they hadn't. He asked them if they'd
like Allah Ta' ala to make them wear bracelets of fire. They replied humbly,
`No!' He then ordered them to pay Zakat on them."
Abu Dawood and
Darqutni report from Ummul Momineen (Mother of the Believers) (Radi Allahu Ta'
"A lady was wearing silver rings. The Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Alaihi wa
Sallam) asked, `Will you pay Zakat on them?' She refused to pay more
than a little. He said that this was enough to carry her to Hell."
Tabrani reports from Hazrat Anas (Radi Allahu
Ta' ala Anh) that his Honour the Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Alaihi wa Sallam)
"A person who
fails to pay Zakat will be in Hell on the Day of Resurrection".
Ibn Khuzaima and Ibn Habban report from Hazrat
Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Holy Prophet (Sail Allahu Ta'ala
Alaihi wa Saliam)
"First of all three types of persons will go to Hell. Amongst them one
will be that rich person who does not pay Allah Ta'ala's due from his
In short, heart breaking disasters for failure to pay Zakat are such as
cannot be tolerated. A person who fails to pay Zakat should expect to be
involved in these heart breaking torments for thousands of years. A weak man
couldn't bear this. If these were inflicted on mountains, they would be turned
into fine powder and dust.
Then who is more
foolish than he who uses his wealth in all sorts of charity and lets Allah
Ta'ala's due remain unpaid? This is a great deception of Satan who destroys a
man under the guise of virtue. The fool thinks that he is doing good deeds but
does not understand that the Nafil without Fard is merely a false pretence.
There is no hope of its acceptance but torment is inflicted for failure to pay
How sad! Fard is a Royal debt and Nafil is like a gift and offering. If you do
not pay the due and offer excessive and useless gifts, how can they be accepted
particularly in the court of that Emperor Who has no need of the entire
Universe? If you do not believe this, imagine the men who are called the rulers
of the World. Imagine if any landlord stops the payment of the land revenue and
uses it to send presents of fruit etc. See if he is found guilty or if his
presents of fruit bring any good result. For a while a man should do a little
heart searching. Suppose there is a contract of sugar cane juice between the
dealers and a sugar cane crusher owner Imagine if, when the time to supply
comes, they do not supply the juice but instead present mango and musk melon.
Will the cane crusher
owner agree with these dealers and hold back the harm he can inflict on them
for defaulting, and give up the juice in
return for those mangos and musk melons?
Praise be to Allah Ta'ala! When this is what a crusher owner will demand, how
can we expect to avoid severe torment for debts to the King of Kings and the
Greatest of all Rulers? There can't be any doubt!
Muhammad bin Mubarak bin Tabbakh in his `Juzil Imla', Usman bin Abi
Shaiba in his `Sunan', Abu Naim in `Hilyatul Awliya', Hannad in `Fawaid'
and Ibn Jareer in `Tahzibul Asar' report from Abdur Rahman bin Sabit,
Zaid bin Zubaid bin Hans and Mujahid:-
"At the last breath Sayyidina Siddique
Akbar, the Caliph of Allah Ta'ala's Messenger (Sail Allahu Ta' ala Alaihi wa
Sallam) called Amirul Momineen Farooque Azam (Radi Allahu Ta' ala Anhum) and
said: `Umar! Always fear Allah Ta' ala and know that there are some duties due
to Allah Ta' ala by day, but if you perform them by night, He will not accept
them. Some are due by night. If you perform them in the day, they will also not
Allama Ibrahim bin Abdullah Yemeni-Madni-Shafii has mentioned this incident in
the 13th chapter of his book `Al Qaul us-Sawab Fi Fadle Umar bin ul Khattab'.
(On the excellence of Umar bin Khattab) and in the 19th chapter of the book `Attahqiq
Ti Fadl as-Siddique' (On the excellence of Siddique) and this is in the
first part of the book `A1-Iktifa Fi Fadlil Arbatul Khulfa' (On the
excellences of Four Caliphs). Imam Suyuti (Rahmatullahi Alaih) has also
reported this in `Jami al Kabeer' through the statements of Abdur Rahman bin
Sabit, Zaid bin Zubaid bin Hans and Mujahid that they made which begin,
"At the moment of his last breath Farooque Azam attended him and
Ghausul Azam Sayyidina Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) has
given heart breaking examples in his book `Futuhul Ghaib' of persons who
up Fards and perform Nafils. He says his example is this:
A King calls a person for his service but he does not attend him and remains
busy in the service of his slave.
illustrates this with an example from Amirul Momineen Sayyidina Ali
(Karam-Allahu Ta' ala Wajh) when he says:-
"The condition of such a person is like that woman who is pregnant but at
the time of delivery, has an abortion. Now she is neither pregnant nor the
mother of the child due to the abortion on the day it was due. She suffered all
the pain but the result was zero. Had she borne the child, it itself would be
the result. If the pregnancy had remained, there would be a hope. Now there is
neither the pregnancy, nor the child, nor hope, but all she has is all the
pain. Similarly, the money which was spent by the performer of the charity is
unacceptable as Nafil, since he gave up the Fard. He spent his wealth but
gained nothing. In the same
book there is a statement of Hazrat Ali (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh):- "Those
who abandon the Fard and do the Sunnat and the Nafil will be humiliated and
these deeds will not be accepted."
Likewise Shaikh Abdul Haque Muhaddith Dehlvi (Radi Allahu Anh) stated in the
commentary on it:-
"It is quite
unwise to perform unnecessary deeds, giving up the
compulsory and the necessary. For a wise person, to remove loss is more
important than to make a gain. In fact there is no gain this way."
Hazrat Shaikh Shahabuddin Suharwardi (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) quotes in the
38th chapter of `Awarif' with reference to Hazrat Khawas:-
"We came to know
that Allah Ta'ala does not accept even a single Nafi unless the Fard are
performed. Allah Ta' ala says to them that they are
like a bad slave who offers a gift before paying a debt."
The Hadith itself shows it, Imam Ahmad reports in his `Musnad' from
Ormara bin Hazam (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anh) that the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu
Ta'ala wa Sallam) says:-
"Allah Ta' ala has placed on us four
duties in Islam. Even the performance of three of them will not benefit you
unless you perform all four - Salat, Zakat, Fasting in
Ramadan and Hajj.
Tabrani reports in `Kabeer' a Sahih Hadith that says that Sayyidina
Abdullah bin Masood (Radi Allahu Ta' ala Anh) says: -
"We have been
ordered to perform Salat and to pay Zakat and he who does not pay Zakat,
his Salat is not acceptable."
Praise be to Allah Ta' ala. When Salat, Fasting and Hajj are not acceptable
from someone who fails to pay Zakat then what good in this life can be expected
Nafil? On the other hand Asbahani reports from the same reporter:- "He who
performs Salat and does not pay Zakat is not a true Muslim and his performance
is of no use."
May Allah Ta'ala guide the Muslims, Amen! Also note! Whatever charity he gave,
(he built a mosque, and registered the village as a gift), he may neither
take the charity back nor has he the right to withdraw the registered gift nor
use the profit of the village to pay Zakat nor use it for his own
purpose and other deeds because the Waqf is definitely encumbered. This is
quoted in `Durr al Mukhtar':
"The Waqf becomes compulsory (Allah Ta'ala's property) and its repudiation
is unlawful. Its possession is not lawful and this is the Islamic
But despite that, unless Zakat is completely paid, there is no chance of
the acceptance of the performance of those deeds because a deed may be correct
but still not be accepted and obtain any reward in Allah Ta'ala's Court.
For example if a person prays only for show, the prayer has been correct, and
the duty has been performed but neither will it be acceptable nor he will get
the reward but on the other hand, he will be guilty. The condition of this
person is similar.
Satan who is a clear enemy of man, and aims to destroy you completely and to
cut the little thread of intention to do charity which causes a gain to the
make you believe the clever remark, "What is the use of charity which is
not acceptable?" Reject it, then, and serve Satan completely! But if Allah
Ta' ala is willing to free you from such severe temptation, He would put in
your heart that it was not the answer of the religious law that the enemy of
Islam taught you and thus finally made you proud and a traitor. You must work
hard to avoid the Royal Verdict condemning you so that the hope might rise of
the acceptance of your charity, and of the construction of the Mosque and also
of the registered gift.
Think a while. Is it
better that your failure be changed into success and bring a new result or
(Allah Ta' ala forbid) better to be rid of the so called remaining service of
Allah Ta' ala and to find yourself in the list of those who are proclaimed
traitors. This is the only right path: beg for pardon heartily and pay the up
to date Zakat so as to obey and appease Allah Ta'ala so that your name may be
written in the list of the obedient slaves of Allah Ta' ala, being struck froth
the list of traitors, and thus find a way of coming proudly before your
Affectionate Lord Who has granted you your soul, organs, wealth and millions of
blessings, and thus get the good news that if you do so there will rise a hope
of the acceptance of your up to date charity, of the registered gift, and of
the construction of the Mosque, which gifts were not acceptable because of your
mistake. Now when these crimes have been wiped out by Allah Ta'ala's Order,
these will also have the honour of acceptance and this is the only remedy for
anyone thinking about his success or failure. If, because a long time has
passed, you cannot calculate the accurate amount of Zakat, you should calculate
an excess amount to purify the life of the Hereafter.
If you pay excess money, it will not be wasted but will be deposited with your
Affectionate Lord in case something happens to you. He will grant you a
reward beyond your imagination. If you pay less than the due, then this is a
debt to the Triumphant King and there is no difference between a debt of one
penny and of one thousand pence. If there is due a huge amount owing from many
years and giving so much will upset you, then first of all think seriously that
this is an omission you yourself made. If you had paid year by year it wouldn't
have been so great. Further see the kindness of the Affectionate Lord that He
did not Order you to give only to strangers but allowed giving to relations, so
that He has made possible two separate rewards; one for charity and the other
So give it to those who are your Kith and Kin
such as brothers and nephews and this will hardly displease you but remember
that they should neither be rich nor minor children nor have a rich living
father, neither should you have a direct blood relation with them i.e. they
should not be amongst your offspring. But if this amount is so great that after
payment you will become penniless still there is no remedy other than to pay.
To suffer the severe verdict of Allah Ta'ala will be beyond your ability to
The few breaths of
this World will pass by somehow or other. But still if this person gives
charity to his relatives with the intention of Zakat and makes them absolute
owner, but then without any compulsion they show mercy on him and of their own
free will, return the amount as a present, there is a total gain for all. The
payer gets liberation from the condemnation of Allah Ta'ala, His debt and duty
have been paid and done and his wealth remains, and his relatives gain wealth
in this World and reward for the Hereafter on account of helping their Muslim
brother in the payment of Zakat and returning him the wealth as a gift which
pity. Further if he has complete confidence in his relations, he need not
calculate how much is due, but give them his total wealth and make them
absolute owner so that then they can return it to him if they so choose, as a
gift. Whatever was due, was paid and has achieved its aims and both parties
have gained the profit of This World and of the Hereafter.
May Allah Ta'ala guide us with His Generosity!
Should Zakat be paid gradually or is there any harm
in lump sum payment?
If he pays Zakat in advance then the year will not yet have passed, so
that the fulfilment of Zakat would become obligatory. He may be either
the owner of the
`Nisab' (The owner of gold or silver or articles of trade beyond basic
needs for life), but the year has not yet come to an end, or he may have paid Zakat
for the last year and the current year is not yet over. Clearly then he has the
full right to pay little by little. In fact there is no harm in that at all,
because the fulfilment of Zakat has not become obligatory by that time.
It is stated in `Durr al Mukhtar' that for the fulfilment of the
obligation of Zakat, your wealth must be in your possession for the
whole year. If Islamic law does not demand payment from him until then, how can
it then demand a lump sum payment? Advance
payment is `Nafl' so that one will get more reward due to advance payment when
both `Nafl' and Fard have been fulfilled. And it is clear that `Nafl' is not
compulsory. But if the year has passed and fulfilment of Zakat has
become obligatory then gradual payment is prohibited but rather one must pay
the complete Zakat immediately, as according to genuine doctrine and
justified and reliable verdicts, the obligation of Zakat must be
fulfilled at once and delay is a matter of sin.
On the other hand many of our Imams (Religious Chiefs) have made it clear that
one who pays the obligation of Zakat late cannot be a witness in an
Islamic Court. The same is reported from Sayyidina Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi
Ta'ala Alaih). Once it is obligatory, the harm of gradual payment is more
obvious than the Sun and even if he only delays immediate payment, he will
become sinful. According to the doctrine of `Tarakhi' (i.e. whose
doctrine teaches paying at the last moment) this delay is also improper because
there are calamities in delay. Allah Ta'ala says:
(1)"And run towards the Forgiveness of your Allah Ta'ala." (3.3)
(2) "Then desire that you may surpass others in good deeds." (2.148)
No one knows, of course, when they will die. If death comes before payment,
then by the consensus of Muslim opinion, the deceased will become sinners. If
suffers a financial and bodily accident, who can then protect themselves
against Satan when they cannot protect themselves against Satan even when he
moves along with the human blood? He may deceive, and the intention to pay
today may vanish tomorrow. Sayyidina Hazrat Imam Muhammad Baqar (Radi Allahu
Ta'ala Anti) had a fine jacket sewn. He went to the bathroom and there he
thought of giving it away in the way of Allah Ta' ala. He at once called the
attendant. The attendant approached the bathroom. Hazrat took off the jacket
and gave it to him and ordered him to give it to such and such a person. When
he came out of the bathroom, the attendant enquired of him respectfully the
reason for so much hurry. He asked whether anyone could know whether the
intention would change before he came out. Praise be to Allah Ta' ala, this was
the caution of a person who was brought up in the cradle of the Verse
"verily over My bondmen, you (Satan)
have no control' and took a bath in the river of the Verse saying "Allah
Ta' ala only desires, of the members of the family of the Prophet (Sail Allahu
Alaihi wa Sallam) that He may remove from you every un cleanliness and purify
you well after thorough cleaning." And we who are merely a game in the
hand of Satan, are so lacking in fear and ready to do evil!
I think certain ideas persuade people to pay little by little. Sometimes there
comes an idea that they should pay this Zakat at that time which is more
suitable for the needy persons. Sometimes an idea comes to their mind that
since the poor persons come in such large numbers, it is best to keep this
money for them and give it to them as time goes by.
Sometimes payment in a lump sum causes a burden on the Self and one thinks that
if it is paid little by little, it will not be felt so much. Those who think
this way, should pay the due in advance and this is the only way to save
themselves from such ideas. For example, if the due time is the Ramadan of 1308
Hijra, they begin to pay from the Shawwal (10th Islamic month) of 1307, and go
on paying little by little. In this way it may suit their convenience so that
may achieve their aims and remain safe from blame and from the prohibition of
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